八卦 trigram
阴、阳 yin, yang
道 Dao(cf. logo)
江湖(世界) the jianghu World (the traits' world)
e.g. You can't control everything in a traits' world. (人在江湖,身不由己)
道 Daoism(Taoism)
上火 excessive internal heat
儒学 Confucianism
红学(《红楼梦》研究) redology
世外桃源 Shangri-la or Arcadia
开放 kaifang (Chinese openness to the outside world)
大锅饭 getting an equal share regardless of the work done
伤痕文学 scar literature or the literature of the wounded
不搞一刀切 no imposing uniformity on …
合乎国情,顺乎民意 to conform with the national conditions and the will of the people
乱摊派,乱收费 imposition of arbitrary quotas and service charge
铁交椅 iron (lifetime) post's; guaranteed leading post
脱贫 to shake off poverty; anti-poverty
治则兴,乱则衰 Order leads to prosperity and chaos to decline

2 、中华民族的喜庆节日(Chinese Festivial)
国庆节 National Day
中秋节 Mia-Autumn Festival
春节 Spring Festival
元宵节 Lantern Festival
儿童节 Children's Day
端午节 Dragon Boat Festival
妇女节 Women's Day
泼水节 Water-Splashing Day
教师节 Teachers' Day
五四青年节 Youth Day

3、中国独特的传统饮食(Unique Traditional Chinese Foods)
馄饨 wonton
锅贴 guotie (fried jiaozi)
花卷 steamed twisted rolls
套餐 set meal
盒饭 box lunch; Chinese take-away
米豆腐 rice tofu
魔芋豆腐 konjak tofu
米粉 rice noodles
冰糖葫芦 a stick of sugar-coated haws (or apples,etc.)
火锅 chafing dish
八宝饭 eight-treasure rice pudding
粉丝 glass noodles
豆腐脑 jellied bean curd

4 、中国新兴事物(Newly Sprouted Things)
中国电信 China Telecom
中国移动 China Mobile
十五计划 the 10th Five-Year Plan
中国电脑联网 Chinanet
三峡工程 the Three Gorges Project
希望工程 Project Hope
京九铁路 Beijing CKowloon Railway
扶贫工程 Anti-Poverty Project
菜篮子工程 Vegetable Basket Project
温饱工程 Decent-Life Project
安居工程 Economy Housing Project
扫黄 Porn-Purging Campaign
西部大开发 Go-West Campaign

5 、特有的一些汉语词汇
禅宗 Zen Buddhism
禅 dhyana; dhgaya
混沌 chaos
道 Daosim, the way and its power
四谛 Four Noble Truth
八正道 Eightfold Path
无常 anity
五行说 Theory of Five Elements
无我 anatman
坐禅 metta or transcendental meditation
空 sunyata
虚无 nothingness
双喜 double happiness(中),a doubled stroke of luck(英)
小品 witty skits
相声 cross-talk
噱头;掉包袱 gimmick, stunt
夜猫子 night people; night-owls
本命年 this animal year of sb.
处世之道 philosophy of life
姻缘 yinyuan(prefixed fate of marriage)
还愿 redeem a wish (vows)

6 、具有文化特色的现代表述
大陆中国 Mainland China
红宝书 little red book
红色中国 socialist China
四化 Four Modernizations
终生职业 job-for-life
铁饭碗 iron rice bowl
大锅饭 communal pot
关系户 closely-related units
外出打工人员 migrant workers
关系网 personal nets, closely-knitted guild
五讲(讲文明、讲礼貌、讲卫生、讲秩序、讲道德):the Five Merits focus on decorum, manners, hygiene, disciplines and morals
四美(心灵美、语言美、行为美、环境美): the Four Virtues are golden heart, refined language, civilized behavior, and green environment

7 、中国古代独特事物(Unique Ancient Chinese Items)
宣纸 rice paper
衙门 yamen
叩头 kowtow
牌楼 pailou;pai-loo
武术 wushu(Chinese Martial Arts)
功夫 kungfu ;kung fu
中庸 the way of medium (cf. Golden Means)
中和 harmony (zhonghe)
孝顺 to show filial obedience
孝子 dutiful son
家长 family head
three cardinal guides: ruler guides subject, father guides son husband guides wife
five constant virtues: benevolence (humanity), righteousness, propriety, wisdom and fidelity
八股文 eight-legged essays
多子多福:The more sons/children, the more blessing/ great happiness
养儿防老:raising sons to support one in one's old age

8、 近一季度见诸报端的中国现代特色词汇翻译
基层监督 grass-roots supervision
基础税率 base tariff level
婚介所 matrimonial agency
婚外恋 extramarital love
婚纱摄影 bride photo
黑心棉 shoddy cotton
机器阅卷 machine scoring
即开型奖券 scratch-open ticket/lottery
集中精力把经济建设搞上去 go all out for economic development
价格听证会 public price hearings
甲A球队 Division A Soccer Team
家政服务 household management service
加强舆论监督 ensure the correct orientation is maintained in public opinion
假帐 accounting fraud
叫板 challenge; pick a quarrel
矫情 use lame arguments
渐进式台独 gradual Taiwan independence
借调 temporarily transfer
扩大中等收入者比重 Raise the proportion of the middle-income group.
扩大内需,刺激消费expand domestic demand and consumption